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Thursday, December 18, 2008

Phishing Mail like Axis Bank

Hi Everyone, Be aware of phishing mails from others yesterday i got a mail from some one as Axis Bank Alert From Luckily my Hotmail Account already Moved to Junk Box . (I don’t Have Axis Bank account )

Security tips

1. If you find any mail in Junk box check twice whether the mail came from known person
2. If you are using famous mail service like yahoo, Live(Hotmail), Google it will automatically find out the phishing mail and it will notify you

3. If you are using Hotmail it will notify with you with the above shown Picture with cross
balloon .
4. when there is any links in the mail please notify that whether it goes to the original link or any other link.

5. You can see two links like axis bank links which shows like Savings Account and Corporate
6. If you Move Cursor Over the Links it will not go to the other phishing pages as shown as
identification - 2
7. If you have opened the Links unknowingly then check whether the URL is correct address.
8. In case if you have FireFox Browser 90% Firefox Browser will find out the Fraud links

9. If you are using Firefox it will find out the web Forgery link
10. My best Advice watch every URL when you browse through official / Financial sites

Antivirus - a new hacker tool!

We firmly believe that antivirus help us from vulnerable attack and protect us.
antivrius hacking tool

But the recent report of IIT Kharagpur(India) engineers is inform that hacker using antivirus as a hacking tool. Mostly they use free antivirus like AVG, F-Secure(F-Port), Sophos, ClamAV, BitDefender, Avast or any such easy to download antivirus software for PC.

“An attacker first crafts an email with malicious payload and sends it to the target user. When the email is scanned by the vulnerable antivirus software it either crashes the antivirus software or executes arbitrary code resulting in complete security bypass and remote system compromise,” said iViZ vice-president Bala Girisaballa.

Now the time is rethink to use free antivirus. The antivirus companies have to change their thought on antivirus to think that it is an install-and-forget system. And user have to give review about product if they face any problem so that the companies try to fix it in next release.

Monday, December 15, 2008


Want to convert your current image or photo to cartoon?

BeFunky is a FREE online image tool that can transform images to cartoon style.
You don't need to be an expert to use it. The choices are simple and easy. You can adjust your image with different kind of results.

They have:
* Cartoonizer - an online application that allows users to turn images and videos into digital paintings, cartoons and comics.

* Uvatar – a digital visual identity tool that takes the avatar concept to an extraordinary new level by letting users create a more accurate digital representation of themselves.

You can upload your image from desktop, url and even a snapshot via webcam (this is cool!).

After uploaded your photo, they have more tool option:
- Sketch: to create a black and white pencil drawing of the photo
- Color: to make sketches look colorful
- Warp: to push and pull any area of an image
- Goodies: ability to add fames, speech baloons, text, graphics, shapes and more

You can see the sample from Mr James Bond (Daniel Craig) images below.

Monday, December 8, 2008

Paste your Face on Popular Photos

Paste your face on popular photos and attract your friends and relatives .

Paste your Face on Popular Photos

Create fun photos with Faceinhole and share with your friends, blogs etc..

just select the theme which you like it and upload the photo which you like to mask it with Faceinhole and apply the settings etc click save. you will get the HTML code to share with Friendster, Orkut, Myspace, blog etc..

Faceinhole is similar to photofunia which allows to create fun photos without any software.

Visit :

Sunday, November 30, 2008

Edit any website


Do you want to edit any website in your browser ?
It is easy just you have to enter the a java script in your address bar after
loading the website/page
This is the java script to be entered in the address bar

javascript: document.body.contentEditable = 'true'; document.designMode = 'on'; void 0

Combine MP3’s into a Single MP3 using Command Prompt

Let’s see how to combine MP3’s in a directory to single MP3 using command prompt.

Combine MP3's into Single MP3

First select the mp3 folder which you have to make it into a single mp3 file. For example a folder consists list of hits now move to command prompt.

Navigate to mp3 folder in command prompt (Eg: D:\mp3) and now target your destination folder where you need to create into single mp3 file.

Just enter “copy /b *.mp3 D:\new.mp3”

Syntax :

(Your Current Folder)copy /b *.mp3 (destination drive and folder)\new.mp3

The above picture shows that all the mp3’s in the desktop is copied as single file new.mp3 under D: drive.


Saturday, November 29, 2008

Save Power while Searching


Blackle is a Google custom search engine just with black screen. The theme of this website is to save the Power while browsing. According to Blackle the power saved is about 951 559.785 watts which is 951.559785 kilowatts.

Visit :


Statbrain is a online web stats tool to find out number of page views to any website or blog.

Statbrain uses Alexa rank, Links to Google, yahoo, Altavista, and Alltheweb as background info to calculate number of visitors.

The number of visitors is not accurate, statbrain just calculates the approximate visitors and pageviews.

Visit :

Monday, November 17, 2008

Video search


A clever way of searching for video clips on the internet - from uploaded episodes of your favourite soap to comedy home-video moments.


PrevURL is for previewing URLs. You may preview normal URLs like or shortened URLs like

If you have a shortened URL like this

You can preview that URL and determine its original URL just by adding the short URL to

To come up with this


Saturday, November 8, 2008

Join and Get paid 98$ per referral...



Saturday, October 18, 2008

Get paid

Tuesday, September 30, 2008

No God or Know God?


An atheist professor of philosophy speaks to his class on the problem Science has with God, The Almighty.

He asks one of his new students to stand and.....

Prof: So you believe in God?

Student: Absolutely, sir.

Prof: Is God good?

Student: Sure.

Prof: Is God all-powerful?

Student: Yes.

Prof: My brother died of cancer even though he prayed to God to heal him.

Most of us would attempt to help others who are ill. But God didn't. How is this God good then? Hmm? (Student is silent.)

Prof: You can't answer, can you? Let's start again, young fellow. Is God good?

Student: Yes.

Prof: Is Satan good?

Student: No.

Prof: Where does Satan come from?

Student: From...God.. .

Prof: That's right. Tell me son, is there evil in this world?

Student: Yes.

Prof: Evil is everywhere, isn't it? And God did make everything. Correct?

Student: Yes.

Prof: So who created evil?

(Student does not answer.)

Prof: Is there sickness? Immorality? Hatred? Ugliness? All these terrible things exist in the world, don't they?

Student: Yes, sir.

Prof: So, who created them?

(Student has no answer.)

Prof: Science says you have 5 senses you use to identify and observe the world around you. Tell me, son...Have you ever seen God?

Student: No, sir.

Prof: Tell us if you have ever heard your God?

Student: No, sir.

Prof: Have you ever felt your God, tasted your God, smelt your God? Have you ever had any sensory perception of God for that matter?

Student: No, sir. I'm afraid I haven't.

Prof: Yet you still believe in Him?

Student: Yes.

Prof: According to empirical, testable, demonstrable protocol, science says your GOD doesn't exist. What do you say to that, son?

Student: Nothing. I only have my faith.

Prof: Yes. Faith. And that is the problem science has.

Student: Professor, is there such a thing as heat?

Prof: Yes.

Student: And is there such a thing as cold?

Prof: Yes.

Student: No sir. There isn't.

(The lecture theatre becomes very quiet with this turn of events.)

Student: Sir, you can have lots of heat, even more heat, superheat, mega heat, white heat, a little heat or no heat. But we don't have anything called cold. We can hit 458 degrees below zero which is no heat,

But we can't go any further after that. There is no such thing as cold. Cold is only a word we use to describe the absence of heat. We cannot measure cold.

Heat is energy. Cold is not the opposite of heat, sir, just the absence of it.

(There is pin-drop silence in the lecture theatre.)

Student: What about darkness, Professor? Is there such a thing as darkness?

Prof: Yes. What is night if there isn't darkness?

Student: You're wrong again, sir. Darkness is the absence of something. You can have low light, normal light, bright light, flashing light....But if you have no light constantly, you have nothing and its called darkness, isn't it? In reality, darkness isn't.

If it were you would be able to make darkness darker, wouldn't you?

Prof: So what is the point you are making, young man?

Student: Sir, my point is your philosophical premise is flawed.

Prof: Flawed? Can you explain how?

Student: Sir, you are working on the premise of duality. You argue there is life and then there is death, a good God and a bad God. You are viewing the concept of God as something finite, something we can measure.

Sir, science can't even explain a thought. It uses electricity and magnetism, but has never seen, much less fully understood either one.

To view death as the opposite of life is to be ignorant of the fact that death cannot exist as a substantive thing. Death is not the opposite of life: just the absence of it. Now tell me, Professor. Do you teach your students that they evolved from a monkey?

Prof: If you are referring to the natural evolutionary process, yes, of course, I do.

Student: Have you ever observed evolution with your own eyes, sir?

(The Professor shakes his head with a smile, beginning to realize where the argument is going.)

Student: Since no one has ever observed the process of evolution at work and cannot even prove that this process is an on-going endeavour, are you not teaching your opinion, sir? Are you not a scientist but a preacher?

(The class is in uproar.)

Student: Is there anyone in the class who has ever seen the Professor's brain?

(The class breaks out into laughter.)

Student: Is there anyone here who has ever heard the Professor's brain, felt it, touched or smelt it? No one appears to have done so. So, according to the established rules of empirical, stable, demonstrable protocol, science says that you have no brain, sir.

With all due respect, sir, how do we then trust your lectures, sir?

(The room is silent. The professor stares at the student, his face unfathomable. )

Prof: I guess you'll have to take them on faith, son.

Student: That is it sir... The link between man & god is FAITH.

That is all that keeps things moving & alive.......

Find who is Invisible on Yahoo

Hello Guys,

Here is the Website that helps you find if a particular user is online, offline or invisible …
link: Invisible-scanner.Com

I remind you again that this is website ….and for this u have not download any software.

Just Enter id and then press enter and after that u will find that that id is online or offline!!!!

and the new thing in this site (Which is very important) is that Main Yahoo ID checker!!!!
Problem : Sometimes this site not working (Because of server load) so you can use other site

But this site doesn’t have any other features , it only show Status (Online , Offline or Invisible).


Please post your comments if u liked my post

Saturday, August 30, 2008

Website Grader

Website Grader
Want to find out how effective your blog or Web site is at snaring all-important search traffic and inbound links? Submit your URL (and your competitors' URLs) to Website Grader, which gives you some basic feedback on how your site is doing and in what areas it can improve. It's a free way to get advice on optimizing your site for search engines, which can drastically boost your traffic. Just enter in the URLs and Website Grader will do a quick (but thorough) analysis.

Visit :

Find DLL....


Hunting for a DLL (Dynamic-Link Library) file? afreeDLL makes finding, downloading, and restoring .dll files a breeze, and all of the downloads are free. You can browse the site's most popular files or search alphabetically, and the site includes explanations and tutorials to walk you through the download and installation process...

Visit :

Download Design Fonts

The site does what its name implies: It collects the coolest, freshest fonts you'd ever need. DaFont features almost 7,500 fonts, all uploaded by various users worldwide. Site navigation is straightforward: Simply browse for fonts either by the categories listed at the top of each page, or by searching for a font name. Most of these free fonts are compatible with both Macs and PCs.

Visit :

Brain Training


It's not the first "brain-training" site we've encountered, but it may be the most scientific. Sign up for a free trial and play games that have been lab-tested and shown to improve memory, attention, processing speed, and cognitive control. The games, such as Bird Watching and Monster Garden, are surprisingly fun, and it's also amusing to track your progress. If you decide you want the full brain-training treatment, it'll cost you $9.95 a month or $79.95 a year.

Visit :

I watch stuff

You know that rumor you heard about that guy who directed that movie that time? It might have started here. Staffed by (gasp) trained journalists, I Watch Stuff has an air of actual credibility spliced into its snark-filled posts about film news, trailers, and clips. That's not to say they're above sniffing out gay subtext in celebrity interviews or mocking Paula Abdul's reality show—but would we really keep going back for more if they didn’t?


All about food..

This is the site for anyone who's read a quick blurb in a magazine or seen a health segment on the news and thought "Cherries fight XYZ disease? Really?" The goal of the nonprofit George Mateljan Foundation is to provide up-to-date info on how foods affect our health and can boost energy. Check back weekly for new recipes, a healthy food of the week, and healthy eating tips. And you also get daily menus laying out three smart, nutrient-rich meals.

Visit :

Know More Funny things in the world ....


If the stress of worrying if a Wikipedia article is factual and accurate is getting you down, take a break and check out Uncyclopedia; it promises to be content-free. It's easy to lose a few hours laughing at the nonsense presented with a straight face here. You could even "learn" a few "facts"; for instance, did you know that a shark, while atop an elephant, is considered the deadliest animal ever? If anyone questions you, just tell them you read it on the Internet.



Much as Google has figured out how to harness user-submitted content to improve Google Earth, turns the collective wiki-eye on the vast reaches of space. Check out the draggable space model with constellations highlighted, learn more about distant stars (or submit your own info)—or you can even see a model of the stars that are above you right now.


Saturday, July 26, 2008

21-27/07/08 week's website

¿¿¿ ǝʇıs sıɥʇ ǝǝs oʇ ǝʇɐl os n ɹ ʎ
¿noʎ ǝɹɐ ʍoɥ ollǝɥ

Can understand , visit
to get collapsed...

“The safest course is to do nothing against one's conscience. With this secret, we can enjoy life and have no fear from death.”


Get daily quotes ...

over 1,000 000 quotes , visit

File Hippo

Genre: Computer Software

Why It's The Best: File hippo has all the best free software programs listed by category with details about how to use them and what they are. Sick of paying for your Anti Virus software, Anti Spyware, Microsoft office? Need to find a better browser, Audio/Video player, instant messenger? File Hippo has the best free alternatives to programs that you should never have to pay for. Best of all, they are FREE.

Visit "Go"
Guerilla Mail

Genre: Temporary Email

Why It's The Best: Sometimes the web site has the best description of their site. "This web site provides you with disposable e-mail addresses which expire after 15 Minutes. You can read and reply to e-mails that are sent to the temporary e-mail address within the given time frame." Also, if you need more time you can just give yourself 15 more minutes. Never have to give out your own email address again, or create another junk address, this web site does it for you!

visit "Go"

Genre: Free File Hosting and Sharing

Why It's The Best: It's pretty simple really, you can host up to 5GB file sizes free and quickly!

visit "Go"

Hacking Firefox


Computer Shopper Magazine August 2008


Computer Shopper Magazine August 2008 | PDF(file-100pages) | 21.2mb(rar)

Sunday, July 13, 2008

Color and Mastering for Digital Cinema


Color and Mastering for Digital Cinema (Digital Cinema Industry Handbook Series)
3.9 MB | PDF |

Windows Vista Annoyances: Tips, Secrets, and Solutions


Book description Windows Vista may be the next big thing, but it still contains enough quirks and unaccountable behaviors to vex anyone. This unique guide not only discusses the most irritating features of the latest Microsoft operating system and how to get around them, but also explains how to improve Windows and do more with the software than microsoft intended. You'll find information on setup, installation, upgrade from other Windows versions, the revamped interface, new security features, user accounts, troubleshooting, and the markedly improved Internet Explorer 7.

Get free For Spywares, Trojans, Malwares and for much more Problems


Spyware is software that is capable of performing certain operations on your computer without your consent, such as displaying advertisements, collecting your personal information, or changing the configuration of your computer.

Other types of unwanted software can alter to your computer with results ranging from minor annoyances to causing your computer to slow down or crash. These programs have the ability to change your Web browser's home page or search page, or add additional components to your browser you may not need or want. These programs also make it very difficult for you to change your settings back to the way you originally had them. These types of unwanted programs are often labeled as spyware.

Malware, or malicious software, is designed specifically to damage your machine or interrupt the normal computing environment. A trojan horse, worm or virus could be classified as malware. Some advertising software can be malicious by trying to re-install itself after you have removed it.

For more info ... Click here

Be sure of Surfing the Internet, Downloading File...

Be Sure to Download Spyterminator(Download)

Create a Signature

create your own!

You can create your own magnigraphs of your signature, a sketch, even a photograph. Your magnigraph can then be scaled to arbitrary size, for printing on T-shirts, mugs, or posters. Makes a great gift!

There are two ways your can create your own magnigraphs. You can upload an image from your computer, or your can point us at an image on the web. Low resolution, high contrast images work best.

Bypass Compulsory Registration

---->>>>Find and share logins for websites that force you to register

Thursday, May 29, 2008

Make money :Earn dollars $$ for search Join Mysearchfunds: Payemnts proof


here is yet another Paid to Search site with Ask, Yahoo, Live, and Google running behind it. They share 50% of the advertising revenue generated, with their members.

In order to use it, you need to have either Internet Explorer 7 installed or Mozilla Firefox installed. You can download them from a link on their site.

Payment Proof Below:

It actually pays,i recently got paid for my searches it is a wonderful site , i have it as my homepage you don't have to install nothing.

for each search, you get your £ 0.03 about $ 0.06!

Click here to join now

Here are the details:

1. Cash out at 2o$ minimum.
2. Just search like you would search on Google.
3. They recently added Google as a search engine.
5. You don't got nothing to lose.

Click here to join now

Wednesday, April 23, 2008



Sunday, April 13, 2008

See Microsoft

---->>>> Microsoft in China

The world's fastest supercomputer will probably never be known as the world's fastest supercomputer.

RIKEN's MDGrape-3 is the first machine to break the petaflop barrier -- that's 1 quadrillion calculations (floating-point operations, to be specific) per second -- and it's three times faster than the currently ranked fastest computer in the world, IBM's BlueGene/L. But MDGrape-3 is so specialized that it can't run the software used to officially rank computing speed. What it can do is determine the effect of any chemical compound on one of the most intricate systems in the human body in a couple of seconds.

MDGrape-3 is designed for pharmaceutical research, specifically molecular dynamics simulation. In developing drugs, pharmaceutical companies have to analyze thousands on thousands of chemical compounds to find out how they'll affect the protein-bonding structures in the human body. Protein structures called enzymes are the building blocks that do all of the work within a cell, and the way these proteins bond with any drug compound introduced into the human body determines the body's response to that drug. MDGrape-3 produces simulations of these molecular interactions. What takes most computers hours or days to analyze takes MDGrape-3 a few seconds. This functionality is invaluable in drug research, and it could drastically cut the research time involved in the development of new cures. A subsidiary of pharmaceutical giant Merck has already booked time on the machine.
Structurally speaking, MDGrape-3 is a parallel computing system consisting of two main sections: a primary server unit and a specialized-engines unit. The latter component is a cluster of 201 engines running proprietary chips developed by Riken specifically for MDGrape-3. It's this huge set of engines, running 24 MDGrape-3 chips each, that does the heavy protein-analysis lifting. Each chip has a maximum processing speed of 230 gigaflops (one billion operations per second). The primary server unit manages the engine cluster. This parallel server setup runs two different types of processors: 65 servers run dual-core Intel 5000-series Xeon processors, 256 per server; and 37 servers run 3.3-GHz Intel Xeon processors, each with 2 MB of level 1 cache, at 74 processors per server. This hardware structure enables the 1-petaflop speed, which is the machine's theoretical maximum for certain processes.

MDGrape-3 took $9 million and about four years to build. And it's actually very efficient -- a total cost of $9 million breaks down to about $15 per gigaflop. The slower BlueGene/L cost about $140 per gigaflop to build.

BlueGene/L, which tops out at a theoretical 360 teraflops (trillion calculations per second), is also a biotechnology-specific machine. The advances in speed marked by these two supercomputers is indicative of a general trend in technology toward biologically-slanted systems. Some say the trend really started with the successful mapping of the human genome in 2000. Regardless of what spurred the current biotechnology race, most experts agree that the logical end of the surge is a state of DNA-based medicine. In several decades, we could make an appointment with our doctor for a quick DNA analysis to find out what diseases we're at risk for and pop a single, gene-targeting pill that eliminates all of those foreseeable risks.

Sunday, March 30, 2008

The worst computer viruses of all time


If you haven't experienced a computer virus yet, just wait -- you probably will.

Fortunately, you missed the real heyday of computer viruses when anti-virus software wasn't very widely used, and virus attacks caused millions of dollars in damages overnight. Today's viruses can still be nightmarish, but for the average user, cleanup is considerably easier than it was just a few years ago, when the only solution in many cases was reformatting your hard drive and starting from scratch (and even that didn't do the trick sometimes).

So join me on a trip down memory lane as we revisit some of the worst viruses of all time and count our blessings that our computers are still up and running despite it all. (Though, please note, "worst" is a matter of considerable debate in the security industry, as the number of infected machines and amount of financial loss is always estimated. If you think another virus was worse than these, please post it in the comments to remind us!)

The worst viruses of all time

Brain, 1986
It all started here: Brain was the first "real" virus ever discovered, back in 1986. Brain didn't really hurt your PC, but it launched the malware industry with a bang and gave bad ideas to over 100,000 virus creators for the next 2 decades.

Michelangelo, 1991
The worst MS-DOS virus ever, Michelangelo attacked the boot sector of your hard drive and any floppy drive inserted into the computer, which caused the virus to spread rapidly. After spreading quietly for months, the virus "activated" on March 6, and promptly started destroying data on tens of thousands of computers.

Melissa, 1999
Technically a worm, Melissa (named after a stripper) collapsed entire email systems by causing computers to send mountains of messages to each other. The author of the virus was eventually caught and sentenced to 20 months in prison.

This was notable for being one of the first viruses to trick users into opening a file, which in this case claimed to be a love letter sent to the recipient. In reality, the file was a VBS script that sent mountains of junk mail and deleted thousands of files. The results were terribly devastating- one estimate holds that 10 percent of all computers were affected, to a cost of $5.5 billion. It remains perhaps the worst worm of all time.

Code Red, 2001
An early "blended threat" attack, Code Red targeted Web servers instead of user machines, defacing websites and later launching denial-of-service attacks on a host of IP addresses, including those of the White House.

Nimda, 2001
Built on Code Red's attack system of finding multiple avenues into machines (email, websites, network connections, and others), Nimda infected both Web servers and user machines. It found paths into computers so effectively that, 22 minutes after it was released, it became the Internet's most widespread virus at the time.

Klez, 2001
An email virus, Klez pioneered spoofing the "From" field in email messages it sent, making it impossible to tell if Bill Gates did or did not really send you that information about getting free money.

Slammer, 2003
Another fast spreader, this worm infected about 75,000 systems in just 10 minutes, slowing the Internet to a crawl (much like Code Red) and shutting down thousands of websites.

MyDoom, 2004
Notable as the fastest-spreading email virus of all time, MyDoom infected computers so they would, in turn, send even more junk mail. In a strange twist, MyDoom was also used to attack the website of SCO Group, a very unpopular company that was suing other companies over its code being used in Linux distributions.

Storm, 2007
The worst recent virus, Storm spread via email spam with a fake attachment and ultimately infected up to 10 million computers, causing them to join its zombie botnet.

Thanks to Symantec for helping to compile this list.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

What's That Stuff?


Contact Lenses

AS A KID who could barely stand eye drops, I had to struggle to muster strength to insert my first contact lens. I was about 13 years old, needed correction only for my left eye, and had to have the lens in place for a couple of hours before an after-school check with my optometrist. It took 30 minutes of staring myself down in the junior high school bathroom mirror to land that first lens.

More than two decades later, inserting my lenses—now needed for both eyes—happens with barely a second thought. I have also hardly given a thought to exactly what it is that I put on my eyes every day. Like most people, I suspect, I tend to think of my lenses as a rather innocuous personal care product. In fact, they're considered a medical device and are regulated by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Devices & Radiological Health, along with breast implants, artificial knees, and drug-eluting coronary stents.

The first contact lenses were blown of glass in the 1880s and rested on the white of the eye rather than covering just the cornea; they could be worn for a few hours at most. Plastic lenses were introduced in the 1930s. The first lenses with mass appeal were smaller lenses that covered just the cornea and were made from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as Plexiglas. Popular through the 1960s, PMMA contacts were notorious for popping out at inconvenient moments. Softer, more comfortable lenses made from poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA) were introduced in the 1970s.

A key thing to know about eye anatomy is that the cornea does not have blood vessels. Consequently, corneal cells get nutrients from tear fluid and from gelatinous material called the aqueous humor, which is located on the inside of the eye. Corneal cells get their oxygen directly from the air. A big drawback for PMMA and poly-HEMA lenses was that neither is permeable to oxygen. This became a particular problem for the softer poly-HEMA lenses because wearers found them more comfortable than rigid PMMA lenses and people therefore wore them longer. In extreme cases, oxygen deprivation to the cornea can lead to growth of blood vessels into the cornea, threatening eyesight.

From the 1970s to the 1990s, much of contact lens research focused on improving oxygen permeability of lens materials. This effort first led to rigid gas-permeable lenses that incorporated a small amount of silicone for flexibility and oxygen permeability, but many wearers found it hard to adjust to the new lenses. Having started with soft lenses in junior high, I tried rigid gas permeables in high school but went running back to soft lenses within a few weeks.

IN THE 1990s, manufacturers turned to the soft hydrogel materials, silicone hydrogels in particular, that are used in the lenses most common today. Of approximately 30 million contact lens wearers in the U.S., around 98% wear soft lenses, says James Gardner, vice president for marketing at contact lens manufacturer CooperVision.

Hydrogels are networks of water-insoluble polymers that can simultaneously hold large amounts of water. They provide significant advantages over previous lenses in oxygen permeability and comfort—their high water content means that they'll stay moist and nonirritating even during extended periods of wear.

A major component in some modern lenses is phosphorylcholine, a hydrophilic material that mimics part of the cell membrane. It is commonly used in medical devices to improve biocompatibility, reduce protein adsorption, and reduce inflammatory response. In contact lenses phosphorylcholine also helps to maintain hydration while preventing deposition of lipids and proteins on any dry spots that do develop, Gardner says.

As an alternative to phosphorylcholine, lenses can be engineered to contain longer siloxane chains, which hydrogen bond to water and eliminate the need for added wetting agents. In saline the lenses contain 48% water by weight and are extremely soft, contributing further to comfort.

Common varieties of contact lenses can be replaced daily, weekly, or monthly. The materials used in these lenses are fundamentally the same, Gardner says. The differences lie in the manufacturing. Lenses to be replaced daily are made on very high volume lines set up to maximize production efficiency, and such lenses are typically offered in fewer power increments and perhaps with only one base curve—the radius of the sphere described by the lenses. Lenses replaced less frequently have more options to achieve better sight correction and fit.

At lens manufacturer CIBA Vision, R&D efforts are directed toward incorporating lubricants that elute over time, to maintain that "fresh lens feeling," says Lynn Winterton, global head of research. For example, a daily disposable lens approved by FDA earlier this year has a lubricant that is forced out with each blink of the eye.

Winterton also says that the company is working on ways to improve the safety of lenses, primarily by looking for materials that don't create a good breeding ground for bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms that can cause eye infections. Most of the patent literature involves impregnating lenses with silver, he says, although some people are looking at incorporating active pharmaceutical agents. He notes that companies have to juggle maintaining transparency, avoiding an inflammatory response, and preventing the evolution of drug-resistant microbes. That's a lot to consider for a product most of us insert in just a blink of an eye.

Monday, March 24, 2008


Disclaimer: This site is a search engine of softwares& on the Internet and does not store any files on its server. Please contact the content providers to delete copyright contents if any and email us, we'll remove relevant links or contents immediately.

Latest Softwares. Check it Out and Download them....... Enjoy :)

Why U r Waiting Just Download it..........

Wednesday, March 5, 2008

The Ugliest Products in Tech History

Microsoft Windows 1.0
The first Macintosh operating system popularized the concept of graphical user interfaces when it was launched in 1984, and a year later Microsoft responded with the first version of Windows--and no GUI has been as blocky or garish since. To be fair, the first Windows wasn't so much an operating system as an add-on to MS-DOS, which meant living with design groaners like ALL-CAPITAL file names and the still-very-DOS-like graphics standard. Though more than a few people would contend that Microsoft has been playing catch-up with Apple's design sense ever since, the ugly duckling did eventually turn into a swan with Windows Vista. And, as we understand it, Windows has done kind of okay in the marketplace.

iMac Flower Power and Dalmatian
Apple's first iMacs were like a breath of fresh air to the computer-buying public. The bright, playful colors and rounded design of the all-in-one computers were in sharp contrast to PCs, which were still mostly beige blocks. Among the 2001 lineup of iMacs were two new color schemes, Flower Power and Dalmatian (white with hazy blue spots). No doubt Steve Jobs felt that the softly colored hues would be considered soothing and tasteful, but frankly they were a bit more reminiscent of a cheap shower curtain. Even the Mac faithful agreed, and saved their oohs and aahs for the Indigo and Graphite models released at the same time.

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Monday, March 3, 2008


Can you imagine life without chocolate? Possibly not. Can you imagine chocolate without science? Probably yes. Well, think again the next time you snap a bar of that delicious brown or white stuff and allow a piece to melt in your mouth.

Chocolate's varied flavors, colors, shapes, and textures result from different recipe traditions that have evolved in different parts of the world. However, although the preparation of top-quality chocolate products may be regarded as an art form, modern processes for manufacturing the most popular brands rely heavily on science and technology.

The essential ingredient in all chocolate is cocoa, which is made from the cream-colored beans that grow in pods on a tree with the botanical name Theobroma cacao. The cocoa or cacao tree, as it is commonly known, is a native of the tropical regions of South and Central America. Nowadays, it is also cultivated in West African and Southeast Asian countries that have humid tropical climates and lie within 20 degrees of the equator.

After harvesting, the beans are removed from the pods and piled in heaps. The growers allow the beans to ferment for several days in order to develop the chemical precursors of the chocolate flavor. The beans are then dried and transported to chocolate factories.

At the factory, the cured beans are sorted and impurities such as sand and plant materials are removed. The beans are then roasted. This process makes the bean shells brittle, darkens the color of the beans, and converts the beans' flavor precursors into the aldehydes, esters, lactones, pyrazines, and other groups of compounds that give chocolate its distinctive flavor and aroma.

The next step is to break up the roasted beans into pieces called nibs and remove the thin shells by blowing air through the beans in a process known as winnowing. The nibs are then ground into chocolate liquor--a thick brown liquid that solidifies at about room temperature.

Approximately 55% of the liquor is cocoa butter, a fat consisting of various triglycerides. Each triglyceride has three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone. Oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid account for more than 95% of the fatty acids in cocoa butter.

The concentration of fat in the liquor is too high for making cocoa powder and too low for making so-called eating chocolate. The trick is to remove about half of the cocoa butter from the liquor using heavy-duty presses and use the butter for making eating chocolate. The solid block of cocoa that remains is pulverized. The powder is used to manufacture drinking chocolate and cocoa. Dairies, bakeries, and confectionery manufacturers also use the powder as a flavoring ingredient.

"If you made a chocolate drink from ground-up cocoa, a lot of the fat would rise to the top of the drink and it would look ghastly," explains Stephen T. Beckett, departmental head at Nestlé Product Technology Centre, York, England, and author of "The Science of Chocolate" (Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry , 2000).

Dark chocolate is made by mixing the separated cocoa butter with chocolate liquor and sugar. The same ingredients plus dried milk are used to make milk chocolate. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, milk, but no chocolate liquor. Eating chocolate typically contains between 25 and 35% fat and 50% sugar. Flavorings such as vanilla may also be added, depending on the product. Sugar substitutes are used for low-calorie products.

During processing, chocolate spends much of its time as a liquid. Viscosity, flow properties, and particle size are therefore important factors in chocolate manufacture. Fat content is a key consideration in determining these properties and, according to Beckett, can have a dramatic impact on viscosity. For example, increasing fat content of chocolate from 27% to 28% can halve its viscosity. Chocolate viscosity can also be reduced by adding a small amount of an emulsifier, such as lecithin, a naturally occurring surface-active agent.

The next stage in chocolate manufacture involves cooling the liquid under controlled conditions to allow the fat, which holds all the solid sugar and cocoa particles together, to set in a crystalline form that has a smooth texture and appealing appearance. For molded products, the fat must also contract on cooling so that the solid chocolate can be removed from the mold. The rate at which chocolate sets, the texture and color of the product, and its melting properties depend on the percentage of cocoa butter and milk fats in the mixture.

Finally, the product is packaged or wrapped to protect it from dirt, external odors, moisture, and insect infestation.

Migration of fat and moisture from caramel, peanuts, wafers, or other ingredients at the center of a confection through chocolate leads to deterioration of the product quality, Beckett points out. The rate of migration is largely determined by the temperature and humidity of the air around the chocolate and also by the moisture content of the chocolate and the type of fat present in the other components.

Chocolate is a food that contains a range of nutrients--including not only fats and sugar, but also other carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, chocolate contains small quantities of salts of metals such as magnesium, potassium, calcium, and iron; the vitamin riboflavin; the stimulant caffeine; and water.

Beckett tells C&EN that cocoa contains around 800 chemical compounds. They include a group of polyphenolic compounds known as flavanols or catechins. A 40-g (about 1 oz.) milk chocolate bar contains around 300 mg of these compounds, a relatively high amount compared with most other polyphenol-containing foods. Polyphenols exhibit antioxidant activity. They have, for example, been shown to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and may therefore help to protect against cardiovascular disease.

Chocolate, regardless of its nutritional benefits, is a pleasure to eat. I'm even tempted, at this moment, to reward myself with a bar of the luscious stuff. Can I tempt you to join me?

Sunday, March 2, 2008

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